Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2015-10-09 22:30:38 UTC
Update date2017-01-19 02:36:23 UTC
FoodComEx IDPC000425
FoodDB RecordFDB001491
Chemical Information
NameL-Homocysteine
DescriptionA high level of blood serum homocysteine is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, one study which attempted to decrease the risk by lowering homocysteine was not fruitful. This study was conducted on nearly 5000 Norwegian heart attack survivors who already had severe, late-stage heart disease. No study has yet been conducted in a preventive capacity on subjects who are in a relatively good state of health.; Elevated levels of homocysteine have been linked to increased fractures in elderly persons. The high level of homocysteine will auto-oxidize and react with reactive oxygen intermediates and damage endothelial cells and has a higher risk to form a thrombus. Homocysteine does not affect bone density. Instead, it appears that homocysteine affects collagen by interfering with the cross-linking between the collagen fibers and the tissues they reinforce. Whereas the HOPE-2 trial showed a reduction in stroke incidence, in those with stroke there is a high rate of hip fractures in the affected side. A trial with 2 homocysteine-lowering vitamins (folate and B12) in people with prior stroke, there was an 80% reduction in fractures, mainly hip, after 2 years. Interestingly, also here, bone density (and the number of falls) were identical in the vitamin and the placebo groups.; Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that arises during methionine metabolism. Although its concentration in plasma is only about 10 micromolar (uM), even moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. Elevations in plasma homocysteine are commonly found as a result of vitamin deficiencies, polymorphisms of enzymes of methionine metabolism, and renal disease. Pyridoxal, folic acid, riboflavin, and Vitamin B(12) are all required for methionine metabolism, and deficiency of each of these vitamins result in elevated plasma homocysteine. A polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T), which is quite common in most populations with a homozygosity rate of 10-15 %, is associated with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, especially in the context of marginal folate intake. Plasma homocysteine is inversely related to plasma creatinine in patients with renal disease. This is due to an impairment in homocysteine removal in renal disease. The role of these factors, and of modifiable lifestyle factors, in affecting methionine metabolism and in determining plasma homocysteine levels is discussed. Homocysteine is an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor modifiable by nutrition and possibly exercise. Homocysteine was first identified as an important biological compound in 1932 and linked with human disease in 1962 when elevated urinary homocysteine levels were found in children with mental retardation. This condition, called homocysteinuria, was later associated with premature occlusive CVD, even in children. These observations led to research investigating the relationship of elevated homocysteine levels and CVD in a wide variety of populations including middle age and elderly men and women with and without traditional risk factors for CVD. (PMID 17136938, 15630149); Homocysteine is an amino acid with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the amino acid cysteine, differing by an additional methylene (-CH2-) group. It is biosynthesized from methionine by the removal of its terminal C? methyl group. Homocysteine can be recycled into methionine or converted into cysteine with the aid of B-vitamins.; Studies reported in 2006 have shown that giving vitamins [folic acid, B6 and B12] to reduce homocysteine levels may not quickly offer benefit, however a significant 25% reduction in stroke was found in the HOPE-2 study even in patients mostly with existing serious arterial decline although the overall death rate was not significantly changed by the intervention in the trial. Clearly, reducing homocysteine does not quickly repair existing structural damage of the artery architecture. However, the science is strongly supporting the biochemistry that homocysteine degrades and inhibits the formation of the three main structural components of the artery, collagen, elastin and the proteoglycans. Homocysteine permanently degrades cysteine disulfide bridges and lysine amino acid residues in proteins, gradually affecting function and structure. Simply put, homocysteine is a 'corrosive' of long-living proteins, i.e. collagen or elastin, or life-long proteins, i.e. fibrillin. These long-term effects are difficult to establish in clinical trials focusing on groups with existing artery decline. The main role of reducing homocysteine is possibly in 'prevention' but studies thus far have not found benefits from it, and some have actually seen increased risks from consuming B vitamins, leading them to conclude that supplementation is not recommended.
CAS Number454-29-5
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(+-)-homocysteinebiospider
(2S)-2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoic acidbiospider
(S)-2-amino-4-mercapto-Butanoatebiospider
(S)-2-amino-4-mercapto-Butanoic acidbiospider
2 amino 4 mercaptobutyric acidbiospider
2-amino-4-mercapto-Butanoatebiospider
2-amino-4-mercapto-Butanoic acidbiospider
2-amino-4-mercapto-Butyric acidbiospider
2-amino-4-mercapto-DL-Butyratebiospider
2-amino-4-mercapto-DL-Butyric acidbiospider
2-amino-4-MercaptobutyrateGenerator
2-Amino-4-mercaptobutyric acidbiospider
2-Amino-4-mercaptobutyric acid (VAN)biospider
2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoatebiospider
2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoic acidbiospider
Butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-biospider
Butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto- (VAN)biospider
Butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-, (S)-biospider
Butyric acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-biospider
Butyric acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-, DL-biospider
Butyric acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-, DL- (9CI)biospider
Butyric acid, 2-amino-4-mercapto-, L-biospider
D,l-homocysteinebiospider
DL-2-amino-4-mercapto-Butyric acidbiospider
DL-2-Amino-4-mercaptobutyric acidbiospider
DL-homocysteinebiospider
DL-homocysteine (free base)biospider
HcyChEBI
Homo-CYSbiospider
Homocysteinebiospider
Homocysteine (van)biospider
Homocysteine, l isomerbiospider
Homocysteine, l-biospider
Homocysteine, l-isomerbiospider
L-2-amino-4-mercapto-Butyric acidbiospider
l-2-amino-4-mercaptobutyric acidbiospider
L-isomer homocysteinebiospider
Usaf b-12HMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H9NO2S
IUPAC name2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H9NO2S/c5-3(1-2-8)4(6)7/h3,8H,1-2,5H2,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyFFFHZYDWPBMWHY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESNC(CCS)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight135.185
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight135.035399227
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Melting Point232-233 oC
Foods of Origin
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Production Data
Production Methodcommercial
Production Method ReferenceNot Available
Production Method Reference FileNot Available
Quantity AvailableProduction upon request, up to 3 g
Delivery TimeNot Available
Storage Formsolid
Storage Conditions-80°C
StabilityNot Available
PurityNot Available
Spectra
Spectral Data Upon RequestNot Available
Provider Information
Contact NameContact InstitutionContact Email
Rosa Vazquez Fresnovazquezf@ualberta.ca
Commercial Vendors
AKSci D600
Toronto Research Chemicals H591295