Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2015-10-09 22:28:56 UTC
Update date2017-01-19 02:36:15 UTC
FoodComEx IDPC000161
FoodDB RecordFDB012804
Chemical Information
NameFormic acid
DescriptionFormic acid, also known as methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. Industrially, formic acid is produced through the oxidation of methanol. Formate is an intermediate in normal metabolism. It takes part in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds and its carbon may appear in methyl groups undergoing transmethylation. It is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Formate is typically produced as a by-product in the production of acetate. It is responsible for both metabolic acidosis and disrupting mitochondrial electron transport and energy production by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity, the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. Cell death from cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate is believed to result partly from depletion of ATP, reducing energy concentrations so that essential cell functions cannot be maintained. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by formate may also cause cell death by increased production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to the blockade of the electron transport chain. In nature, formic acid is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. Urinary formate is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter frundii, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (PMID: 22292465).
CAS Number64-18-6
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
Acide formiqueChEBI
Add-FHMDB
Amasilbiospider
AmeisensaeureChEBI
AmeisensaureHMDB
Aminatebiospider
Aminic acidbiospider
Bilorinbiospider
Collo-bueglattbiospider
Collo-didaxbiospider
FEMA 2487db_source
Formatebiospider
Formirabiospider
Formisotonbiospider
Formylatebiospider
Formylic acidbiospider
H-COOHChEBI
HCO2HChEBI
HCOOHChEBI
Hydrogen carboxylatebiospider
Hydrogen carboxylic acidbiospider
Methanoatebiospider
Methanoic aciddb_source
Methanoic acid monomerHMDB
MethoateGenerator
Methoic acidbiospider
MyrmicylHMDB
Sodium formateHMDB
Sybestbiospider
Wonderbond hardener m 600LHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH2O2
IUPAC nameformic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/CH2O2/c2-1-3/h1H,(H,2,3)
InChI KeyBDAGIHXWWSANSR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC=O
Average Molecular Weight46.0254
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.005479308
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct ParentCarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Experimental logP-0.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Water Solubility1000 mg/mL at 25 oCRIDDICK,JA et al. (1986)
Melting PointMp 8.4°DFC
Foods of Origin
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Production Data
Production Methodcommercial
Production Method ReferenceNot Available
Production Method Reference FileNot Available
Quantity AvailableProduction upon request, up to 500 mg
Delivery TimeNot Available
Storage Formliquid
Storage Conditions-80°C
StabilityNot Available
PurityNot Available
Spectra
Spectral Data Upon RequestNot Available
Provider Information
Contact NameContact InstitutionContact Email
Rosa Vazquez Fresnovazquezf@ualberta.ca
Commercial Vendors
AKSci Y1306
Glentham GK4394
Toronto Research Chemicals F692900