Record Information
Creation date2015-10-09 22:27:42 UTC
Update date2017-01-19 02:36:11 UTC
FoodComEx IDPC000046
FoodDB RecordFDB008113
Chemical Information
NameMaleic acid
DescriptionMaleic acid is an industrial raw material for the production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis. Maleic acid is an organic compound which is a dicarboxylic acid (molecule with two carboxyl groups). The molecule consists of an ethylene group flanked by two carboxylic acid groups. Maleic acid is the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas fumaric acid is the trans isomer. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ/mol. The physical properties of maleic acid are very different from that of fumaric acid. Maleic acid is soluble in water whereas fumaric acid is not and the melting point of maleic acid (130 - 131 degree centigrade) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 degree centigrade). Both properties of maleic acid can be explained on account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that takes place at the expense of intermolecular interactions. Maleic acid is converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation. It reacts with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride to give the maleic acid chloride (it is not possible to isolate the mono acid chloride). Maleic acid is a reactant in many Diels-Alder reactions. [HMDB]. Maleic acid is found in many foods, some of which are cocoa bean, lovage, roselle, and corn.
CAS Number110-16-7
(2Z)-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-But-2-enedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-Butene-2-dioic acidHMDB
(Z)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(Z)-2-Butenedioic acid, 9CIdb_source
(Z)-Butenedioic acidChEBI
2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
cis-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
cis-But-2-enedioic acidChEBI
cis-Butenedioic acidChEBI
cis-Ethylene-1,2-dicarboxylic aciddb_source
Kyselina maleinovaHMDB
Maleinic acidHMDB
Malenic acidHMDB
Malezid cmHMDB
Scotchbond multipurpose etchantHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4O4
IUPAC name(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H4O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b2-1-
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)\C=C/C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight116.0722
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.010958616
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Foods of Origin
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Production Data
Production Methodcommercial
Production Method ReferenceNot Available
Production Method Reference FileNot Available
Quantity AvailableProduction upon request, up to 2 g
Delivery TimeNot Available
Storage Formsolid
Storage Conditions-80°C
StabilityNot Available
PurityNot Available
Spectral Data Upon RequestNot Available
Provider Information
Contact NameContact InstitutionContact Email
Rosa Vazquez
Commercial Vendors
AKSci G480
Glentham GK3899
MetaSci HMDB0000176
Tero chem laboratories Ltd HMDB0000176
Toronto Research Chemicals M124300