Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2015-10-09 22:31:02 UTC
Update date2017-01-19 02:36:26 UTC
FoodComEx IDPC000508
FoodDB RecordFDB008301
Chemical Information
NameAcetone
DescriptionSolvent used in food processing as a colour diluent, flavour ingredient, etc. Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil. Once in the atmosphere, it is degraded by UV light with a 22-day half-life. Acetone dissipates slowly in soil, animals, or waterways since it is sometimes consumed by microorganisms; however, it is a significant issue with respect to groundwater contamination due to its high solubility in water. The LD50 of acetone for fish is 8.3 g/l of water (or about 0.8%) over 96 hours, and its environmental half-life is about 1 to 10 days. Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial activity consuming it.; Acetone is a good solvent for most plastics and synthetic fibres including those used in Nalgene bottles made of polystyrene, polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene. It is ideal for thinning fiberglass resin, cleaning fiberglass tools and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before hardening. It is used as a volatile component of some paints and varnishes. As a heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting; it also thins polyester resins, vinyl and adhesives.; Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover. Ethyl acetate, another organic solvent, is sometimes used as well. Acetone is a component of superglue remover and it easily removes residues from glass and porcelain.; Acetone is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis. Acetone is not regarded as a waste product of metabolism. However, its physiological role in biochemical machinery is not clear. A model for the role of acetone metabolism is presented that orders the events occurring in acetonemia in sequence: in diabetic ketosis or starvation, ketone body production (b-hydroxy-butyrate, acetoacetate) provides fuel for vital organs (heart, brain . .) raising the chance of survival of the metabolic catastrophe. However, when ketone body production exceeds the degrading capacity, the accumulating acetoacetic acid presents a new challenge to the pH regulatory system. Acetone production and its further degradation to C3 fragments fulfill two purposes: the maintenance of pH buffering capacity and provision of fuel for peripheral tissues. Since ketosis develops under serious metabolic circumstances, all the mechanisms that balance or moderate the effects of ketosis enhance the chance for survival. From this point of view, the theory that transportable C3 fragments can serve as additional nutrients is a novel view of acetone metabolism which introduces a new approach to the study of acetone degradation, especially in understanding its physiological function and the interrelationship between liver and peripheral tissues. (PMID 10580530). Acetone is typically derived from acetoacetate through the action of microbial acetoacetate decarboxylases found in gut microflora.; In chemistry, acetone is the simplest representative of the ketones. Acetone is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid readily soluble in water, ethanol, ether, etc., and itself serves as an important solvent. ; Acetone is an irritant and inhalation may lead to hepatotoxic effects (causing liver damage).; Acetone is the organic compound with the formula OC(CH3)2. This colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones. Owing to the fact that acetone is miscible with water, and virtually all organic solvents, it serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. More than 3 billion kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to polymers. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner and sanitary cleaner/ nail polish remover base. It is a common building block in organic chemistry. In addition to being manufactured, acetone also occurs naturally, even being biosynthesized in small amounts in the human body.; Bisphenol-A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates, polyurethanes, and epoxy resins.; In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactions, such as SN2 reactions. The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation. It is a common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost, volatility, and ability to dissolve water. For similar reasons, acetone is also used as a drying agent. Acetone can be cooled with dry ice to -78 °C without freezing; acetone/dry ice baths are commonly used to conduct reactions at low temperatures. Acetone is fluorescent under ultraviolet light, and acetone vapor may be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments.; When oxidized, acetone forms acetone peroxide as a byproduct, which is a highly unstable compound. It may be formed accidentally, e.g. when waste hydrogen peroxide is poured into waste solvent containing acetone. Acetone peroxide is more than ten times as friction and shock sensitive as nitroglycerin. Due to its instability, it is rarely used, despite its easy chemical synthesis.
CAS Number67-64-1
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(CH3)2CObiospider
β-ketopropanebiospider
2-PropanoneChEBI
2-Propanone, 9CIdb_source
AcetonChEBI
Acetone oilbiospider
Acetonumbiospider
AzetonChEBI
b-KetopropaneGenerator
beta-KetopropaneChEBI
Dimethyl ketonedb_source
DimethylcetoneChEBI
DimethylformaldehydeHMDB
DimethylketonChEBI
DimethylketoneChEBI
FEMA 3326db_source
Methyl ketoneChEBI
PropanonChEBI
PropanoneChEBI
Pyroacetic etherChEBI
Sasetonebiospider
β-ketopropaneGenerator
Chemical FormulaC3H6O
IUPAC namepropan-2-one
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H6O/c1-3(2)4/h1-2H3
InChI KeyCSCPPACGZOOCGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESCC(C)=O
Average Molecular Weight58.0791
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight58.041864814
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ketones. These are organic compounds in which a carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms R2C=O (neither R may be a hydrogen atom). Ketones that have one or more alpha-hydrogen atoms undergo keto-enol tautomerization, the tautomer being an enol.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentKetones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Experimental logP-0.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Water Solubility1000 mg/mL at 25 oCRIDDICK,JA et al. (1986)
Melting PointMp -94°DFC
Foods of Origin
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Production Data
Production Methodcommercial
Production Method ReferenceNot Available
Production Method Reference FileNot Available
Quantity AvailableProduction upon request, up to 10 mg
Delivery TimeNot Available
Storage Formsolid
Storage Conditions-80°C
StabilityNot Available
PurityNot Available
Spectra
Spectral Data Upon RequestNot Available
Provider Information
Contact NameContact InstitutionContact Email
Rosa Vazquez Fresnovazquezf@ualberta.ca
Commercial Vendors
Glentham GK3021
Glentham GK3913
Toronto Research Chemicals A163800